The Doctrine of God
*The names of God
In the Bible, particularly the Old Testament, a person’s name reflected or hoped to reflect, something about that person. The following list is taken from a number of sources which are located at the bottom of the text. Links are provided for further study.
ADONAI [ˌædɒˈnaɪ; ah-daw-nahy]: “Lord” (Genesis 15:2; Judges 6:15) – used in place of YHWH, The Jews considered humans to sinful to use the name YHWY. 2 “YHWH is more often used in God’s dealings with His people, while Adonai is used more when He deals with the Gentiles”.
Yahweh Compounds: YHWH / YAHWEH / JEHOVAH [yah-way / ji-hoh-veh]: “LORD” (Deuteronomy 6:4; Daniel 9:14) –2 strictly speaking, the only proper name for God. Translated in English Bibles “LORD” (all capitals) to distinguish it from Adonai, “Lord.” The revelation of the name is given to Moses “I Am who I Am” (Exodus 3:14). This name specifies an immediacy, a presence. Yahweh is present, accessible, near to those who call on Him for deliverance (Psalm 107:13), forgiveness (Psalm 25:11) and guidance (Psalm 31:3). YAHWEH-JIREH [yah-way-ji-reh]: "The Lord Will Provide" (Genesis 22:14) –1 “Because he ‘is’ and ‘will be’ who is, Godwill see and provide what is needed to fulfill his promise. In Genesis 22:14, Abraham remembered God by this name because God had provided a ram to sacrifice in place of Isaac. YAHWEH-RAPHA [yah-way-raw-faw]: 2 "The Lord Who Heals" (Exodus 15:26) – “I am Jehovah who heals you” both in body and soul. In body, by preserving from and curing diseases, and in soul, by pardoning iniquities. YAHWEH-NISSI [yah-way-nee-see]: "The Lord Our Banner" (Exodus 17:15), where banner is understood to be a rallying place. 3 Stresses that God is our rallying point and our means of victory; the one who fights for His people (Ex. 17:15).
YAHWEH-M'KADDESH [yah-way-meh-kad-esh]: 2 "The Lord Who Sanctifies, Makes Holy" (Leviticus 20:8; Ezekiel 37:28) – God makes it clear that He alone, not the law, can cleanse His people and make them holy. YAHWEH-SHALOM [yah-way-shah-lohm]: "The Lord Our Peace" (Judges 6:24) – 2 the name given by Gideon to the altar he built after the Angel of the Lord assured him he would not die as he thought he would after seeing Him. YAHWEH-ELOHIM [yah-way-el-oh-him]: "LORD God" (Genesis 2:4; Psalm 59:5) – 2 a combination of God’s unique name YHWH and the generic “Lord,” signifying that He is the Lord of Lords. YAHWEH-TSIDKENU [yah-way-tzid-kay-noo]: "The Lord Our Righteousness” (Jeremiah 33:16) – 3 Portrays the Lord as the means of our righteousness (Jer. 23:6).
YAHWEH-ROHI [yah-way-roh-hee]: "The Lord Our Shepherd" (Psalm 23:1) – 2 After David pondered his relationship as a shepherd to his sheep, he realized that was exactly the relationship God had with him, and so he declares, “Yahweh-Rohi is my Shepherd. I shall not want” (Psalm 23:1). YAHWEH-SHAMMAH [yah-way-sham-mahw]: "The Lord Is There” (Ezekiel 48:35) – 3 Portrays the Lord’s personal presence in the millennial kingdom (Ezek. 48:35).
YAHWEH-SABAOTH [yah-way-sah-bah-ohth]: "The Lord of Hosts" (Isaiah 1:24; Psalm 46:7) – Hosts means “hordes,” both of angels and of men. He is Lord of the host of heaven and of the inhabitants of the earth, of Jews and Gentiles, of rich and poor, master and slave. The name is expressive of the majesty, power, and authority of God and shows that He is able to accomplish what He determines to do.
El and Compounds:
EL, ELOAH [el, el-oh-ah]: God "mighty, strong, prominent" (Nehemiah 9:17; Psalm 139:19) – etymologically, El appears to mean “power” and “might” (Genesis 31:29). El is associated with other qualities, such as integrity (Numbers 23:19), jealousy (Deuteronomy 5:9), and compassion (Nehemiah 9:31), but the root idea of “might” remains. ELOHIM [el-oh-heem]: God “Creator, Mighty and Strong” (Genesis 17:7; Jeremiah 31:33) – 2 the plural form of Eloah, which accommodates the doctrine of the Trinity. From the Bible’s first sentence, the superlative nature of God’s power is evident as God (Elohim) speaks the world into existence (Genesis 1:1).
El Elohim Compounds: EL SHADDAI [el-shah-dahy]: “God Almighty,” “The Mighty One of Jacob” (Genesis 49:24; Psalm 132:2,5) – 2 speaks to God’s ultimate power over all. EL ELYON [el-el-yohn]: “Most High" (Deuteronomy 26:19) – 2 derived from the Hebrew root for “go up” or “ascend,” so the implication is of that which is the very highest. El Elyon denotes exaltation and speaks of absolute right to lordship. EL ROI [el-roh-ee]: "God of Seeing" or “God who sees me’ (Genesis 16:13) – 4 used by Hagar in Genesis 16.
EL-OLAM [el-oh-lahm]: "Everlasting God" (Psalm 90:1-3) – 1 “Because God is omnipotent, he is eternal. He is is God eternal or ‘The Everlasting God’ (Genesis 21:33). The plural form of God’s name is used (Pss 90:2, 93:2, 103:17)
EL-GIBHOR [el-ghee-bohr]: “Mighty God” (Isaiah 9:6) – 2 the name describing the Messiah, Christ Jesus, in this prophetic portion of Isaiah. As a powerful and mighty warrior, the Messiah, the Mighty God, will accomplish the destruction of God’s enemies and rule with a rod of iron (Revelation 19:15).
1. MacArthur, John and Mayhue, Richard. Biblical Doctrine (A systematic Summary of Bible Truth). (2017). Crossway Publishers. Illinois.
2. What are the different names of God, and what do they mean? | GotQuestions.org
4. What Are the Names of God in the Bible? (christianity.com)